Sites in Turkey, including the famous Gobekli Tepe, show that before agriculture, hunter-gatherers started harvesting wild grasses. They were using the ancestors of wheat and barley to make beer - crushing them up in big tubs and leaving them to ferment. They found hundreds of these tubs and even simple musical instruments. What were they doing - having a festival of course. At this proto-Glastonbury hunter gatherer groups would come from miles around to drink, listen to someone rock out on the deer-horn flute and enjoy themselves.
Lets start with the virus. Viruses are often seen as the evil bad guys, trying to thwart life at every turn - their name comes from the Latin vīrus referring to poison and other noxious liquids. In reality however viruses actually do a lot for us and our world and despite being often defined as ‘disease-causing agents’ (as bacteria first were).
A study in 2017, trying to understand why and how microplastics are getting in the marine food chain, found that when coral were offered plastic, sand and bacteria-covered plastic + sand they actually preferred the naked-plastic. They even retained the plastic for longer compared to the other food. They suspect that some types of plastic contain chemicals which stimulate the corals - which are tiny animals related to jellyfish - to feed. Or in other words, plastic is tasty for corals.
The image above is 440-480 million year old fossil Trilobite we found in Wales. Trilobites roamed our oceans for over 270 million years before going extinct - in comparison us humans have existed for less than 200,000 years. Finding these incredible impressions makes you wonder what trace will we leave?
Biomining also could be cheaper and greener than traditional mining, using less water and emitting less CO2 than conventional crushing, heating and chemical processes. Biomining works at much lower temperatures and pressures than normal techniques reducing the electricity bill and resources used to get the metal out of the rock.
Fritz Haber was a German chemist, who made food from air. He invented the Haber-Bosch process that takes nitrogen from the air and turns it into fertiliser, feeding billions - half the protein in our body is a result of this process. He won a Nobel prize and was Albert Einsteins friend and for a time was one of Germany's heros. However he was also one of the fathers of gas warfare, responsible for countless horrific deaths (including his wife) and is considered a war criminal today.